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Even if there are not, Isis has the resources to hire hackers or to outsource layers of sophisticated attacks.

In any case, many successful attacks do not require sophistication and the rise of GUI based malware, Maa S, and Raa S, means that an attacker does not need a technical background or even a complete understanding to launch an attack." British militant and hacker Junaid Hussain aka Abu Hussain Al Britani was believed to be the driving force behind IS's cyber and social media growth and strategies.

IBTimes UK spoke to James Scott from the Institute for Critical Infrastructure Technology (ICIT) about the paper The Anatomy of Cyber Jihad he co-wrote with Drew Spaniel, which analyses how extremist terror groups, be it al-Qaeda, al-Shabaab, Boko Haram or Islamic State (Isis) have taken to educating themselves about hacking to function better in this age of technology."The chaos and religious extremism in the Middle East has spun the cyber jihadist into existence.

These actors possess select characteristics of each of the above while injected with the religious fervour of the Crusades.

"Isis has never claimed ownership of the Cyber Caliphate," ICIT pointed out.When asked what this may signify, Scott responded: "It could signify that the UCC supports Isis, but that the UCC is not internal to Isis.It is also possible that Isis just never felt the need to outright claim ownership of the group."The UCC has a social media presence, but it is much smaller than IS'.The group's social media presence remains inconstant and poorly aligned with its other propaganda.After allying with Isis, its published videos and photographs began to mirror that of Isis," ICIT specified."Isis has a strong online presence that heavily recruits and promotes 'lone-wolf' actions through social media.

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